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How to Create a Reference List Using APA Style: Welcome

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth edition

APA Style and Grammar Guidelines


You have an assignment for which you must create a reference list using APA Style.  APA is the abbreviation for the American Psychological Association.  Where do you start?  The Standish Library owns a print copy of the seventh edition (current) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (aka the APA Style Manual).  Unfortunately, the style manual is not available electronically at Siena, but the APA website gives you some guidance.  Please look at the boxes on the left.

SWOT Analysis Reports

The APA Style Manual, like most citation manuals, does not give examples and guidance for all possible types of publications, forcing students, faculty, and librarians to interpret the guidelines.  This is the case with including SWOT Analysis Reports in a reference list. Most interpretations utilize a variation on the APA format for Reports and Gray Literature (section 10.4) if using the current seventh edition, or Technical and Research Reports (section 7.03) if still using the sixth edition.

Elements of a reference for a SWOT Analysis obtained using a database:

Corporate Author. (Date). Title of Report [SWOT Analysis]. Retrieved from--name of a database.

Below are examples (with helpful hints) of citing in a reference list SWOT Analysis reports obtained from three databases in the Standish Library's collection.

Business Insights: Essentials (SWOT Example)

GlobalData. (2019, December). Pepsico, Inc. [SWOT Analysis]. Retrieved from

       Business Insights: Essentials database.

Business Source Premier (SWOT Example)

MarketLine. (2019, August 22). Hershey Co. SWOT Analysis. Retrieved from

         Business Source Premier database.


Helpful Hint: MarketLine is the company that created the SWOT Analysis.  That is not readily apparent from the initial citation screens.  MarketLine is credited on the SWOT Analysis report and on the publication detail page attached to the citation.

Helpful Hint: You do not have to place "SWOT Analysis" in brackets because SWOT Analysis is part of the title of the SWOT report.

Helpful Hint: Do not use the "cite" information provided on the tools menu of records in this database.

MarketLine (SWOT Example)

MarketLine. (2020, May 29). Nestle SA [SWOT Analysis]. Retrieved from MarketLine database. 


Helpful Hint: MarketLine is the creator of the SWOT Analysis as well as the name of the database it is from. (Same company)

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