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Nursing Resources: More Resources

Evidence-Based Pyramid

Studies Defined

Meta-Analysis: A systematic review that uses quantitative methods to synthesize & summarize results.

Systematic Review: A summary of the medical literature that uses explicit methods to perform a
comprehensive literature search & critical appraisal of individual studies.

Randomized Controlled Trial: Participants are randomly allocated into experimental or control groups &
are followed over time for the variables/outcomes of interest.

Cohort Study: Identifies participants who currently have a certain condition or receive a treatment and are
followed over time & compared with another group of people who are not affected by the condition.

Case Control Study: Identifies participants who have a certain outcome (cases) & participants without that
outcome (controls).

Case Report/Case Series: A report on one or more participants with a particular outcome.
(Adapted from CEBM - Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine)

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